Cyber Mercenaries: When States Exploit the Hacker Community

Cyber Mercenaries: When States Exploit the Hacker Community

After my talk at the Hackers 2 Hackers Conference in Brazil, some asked me for a shorter version of the Dissertation’s bibliography, with the ten main articles. While I do believe that every paper examined has contributed to my writing and speech, here it is a primary list:

  1. Betz, D. and Stevens, T. (2011). Cyberspace and the State: Toward a Strategy for Cyber-Power. 1st ed. Abingdon: Routledge.

  2. Collier, J. (2015). ** State Proxies & Plausible Deniability: Challenging Conventional Wisdom. [online] Cyber Security Intelligence. Available at: [Accessed 19 Jun. 2017].

  3. Egloff, F. (2017). Cybersecurity and the Age of Privateering. In: G. Perkovich and A. Levite, ed., Understanding Cyber Conflict: Fourteen Analogies, 1st ed. [online] Georgetown University Press. Available at: [Accessed 25 Oct. 2018].

  4. Geary, S. (2017). The Cyber-Intelligence Nexus: Russia’s Use of Proxies. [online] The Cipher Brief. Available at: [Accessed 25 Jul. 2017].

  5. Kello, L. (2016). Private-Sector Cyberweapons: Strategic and Other Consequences. SSRN Electronic Journal. [online] Available at: [Accessed 18 Jun. 2017].

  6. Kello, L. (2013). The Meaning of the Cyber Revolution: Perils to Theory and Statecraft. International Security, 38(2), pp.7-40.

  7. Lindsay, J. and Kello, L. (2014). Correspondence: A Cyber Disagreement. International Security, 39(2), pp.181-192

  8. Maxey, L. (2017). Cyber Proxies: A Central Tenet of Russia’s Hybrid Warfare. [online] The Cipher Brief. Available at: [Accessed 5 Aug. 2017].

  9. Rid, T. (2012). Cyber War Will Not Take Place. Journal of Strategic Studies, 35(1), pp.5-32.

  10. Stone, J. (2013). Cyber War Will Take Place!. Journal of Strategic Studies, 36(1), pp.101-108.

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